Open Sound Control (OSC) is the de facto standard for exchanging control data between audio applications in distributed systems and on local setups with multiple components: http://opensoundcontrol.org/introduction-osc
All programming languages and tools for computer music offer means for using OSC and specific solutions exist for data sonification: http://opensoundcontrol.org/mapping-nonmusical-data-sound
OSC is based on UDP/IP protocol in a client-server way. A server needs to be started for listening to messages sent from a client. A typical OSC message consists of a path and arguments:
The path is a string with slash-separated substrings. Parameters can be integers, floats and strings. Unlike MIDI, OSC offers only the transport protocol but does not define a standard for musical parameters. Hence, the paths used for a certain software is completely arbitrary and can be defined by the developers.