Pierre Schaeffer & Musique Concrète
The use of recorded material for musical compositions dates back to Pierre Schaeffer, who started experiments with turntables after World War II. He recorded environmental sounds and musical instruments, arranged them, altered the playback speed and used loops in what then became musique concrète. These techniques are well-known nowadays, but were a completely novel experience in th 1940s.
Although an engineer by profession, Pierre Schaeffer did not only explore the technical means for composing with recorded sound. With the theory of the objet sonore he also lay the foundation for a theoretical and aesthetical discourse of acousmatic music (Schaeffer, 2012).
The Cinq Études de bruits (1948), the first published works of musique concrète, use various sources and techniques.
After the first experiments, Schaeffer started to involve musicians for taking the concept to the next level. With Pierre Henry he relized the Symphonie pour un homme seul in 1950. This acousmatic composition made use of various additional techniques, including spatial aspects.
Early Popular Music
Experimental approaches in popular music took up the idea of sampling and integrated recorded sounds, using them especially for intro and outro effects. Since their pioneering 1967 album Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band, the Beatles worked with sounds from mammals, birds and insects in almoast all of their albums (Brumm, 1012). Other examples for early experiments with sampled material are the The Beach Boys and Pink Floyd.
Early devices capable of digital sampling are the Fairlight CMI (1979) and the Synclavier II (1980). These expensive, bulky devices were already used in various productions.
The Linn Drum (1982) represents a breakthrough for digital sampling. Using 8 bit technique, it offers a set of drum sounds, which can be found in many 1980s pop productions.